The documented findings of the workshops were further discussed in the course of three follow-up interviews with Slovak HEI representatives and the Slovak Ministry of Education. First, three tailor-made training curricula were elaborated for the different target groups. The selection criteria for participating SMEs included factors such as financial stability, innovation and growth perspective, same or similar business sectors in knowledge-intensive or innovative industries and international orientation.
In addition, the participating SMEs should not be in direct competition to each other. The participants were employees of Knowledge Transfer Units and Research and Development centres, quality managers at HEIs and research institutions, persons in charge of strategic management at HEIs, representatives of the Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Education, regional development managers or heads of incubators and start-up centres.
The required background knowledge which is also reflected in the job profiles of this target group comprised practical experience and basic understanding of the organisational structures and processes of their own institution. The third target group included staff of the participating organisations of the Slovak project members and external collaborators.
The main selection criteria were sound experience and a background in business consultancy. The curricula structure was built in a modular manner. In principal, all trainings were designed for participants with a low level of knowledge on ICR and management. The first module provided an introduction to the topic including basics of knowledge-based items, followed by the economic rationale and benefits when successfully applying ICR.
Module 2 provided an overview to strategic management mechanisms and examples of ICR integration. Module 3 was built on e-learning assignments where participants translated the theoretical inputs into their individual environment. The final module of the workshops was bringing both target groups from HEI and business together with the intention to enhance cooperation and create an innovative collaborative environment. The participants were asked to split into interdisciplinary break-out groups and work in moderated sessions on topics settled within the overall substantial framework of this module e.
The HEI partner supervised the whole process. The didactical approach followed an integrated blended learning policy. The curricula and training materials including readings, assignments, instructions, articles and presentations were provided centrally via an online learning platform. The training programme rested on two face-to-face blocks, each consisting of modules with a respective duration of half a day see Figures 4 and 5.
Between the two face-to-face blocks, activity based e-learning assignments took place to reflect on lessons-learnt and deepen the knowledge.
The theoretical inputs were enriched through good practice examples, real life cases and supported interaction between the participants to interlink the target groups. The trainers comprised a mix of experienced experts from different sectors and nationality to ensure international perspectives and bring in fresh insights to the group as well as state-of-the-art content and tools. Selected course parts taught by international experts were translated in Slovak language simultaneously since the level of English language skills of some participants was not sufficient.
After conduction of the workshops, the learning materials for the workshops were revised according to the relevant comments and suggestions made by participants and trainers. The final material was submitted for course accreditation to the Slovak Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Sport. After the workshop implementation and summary of feedback, bilateral meetings with three HEI representatives from rectorate and faculty level of Slovakian Technical and Economic universities were organised in April and June in order to further discuss the IC methodology and findings from the workshops.
All HEI representatives agreed on the importance of the topic and addressed similar thematic areas which are presented in the next chapter. The main findings are presented below. Based on the eight individual interviews conducted Austrian and Slovakian Ministries and Universities  and the feedback gathered from the participants of the different interactive workshops, the following results could be found. They are summarised up to four thematic topics in the two tables as follows: Table I includes the results regarding HEIs as single organisations: topic: strategic management of HEIs and ICR as a steering and measurement tool; and.
The idea was to close the gap between the different perspectives and utilise the IC drivers as a common language base and starting point for a common view on potential innovation measures and future policy interactions see also Chapter 2. The results can be summarised as follows. It was commonly argued that universities in the region are indeed active in the eight presented types of UBC, but with much room for improvement.
From the business perspective it was stated, that cooperation runs primarily through internships and training of students and companies representatives. Both should be increased and guest lecturing opportunities could be improved. It was also recommended to further increase the internationalisation level of universities and use the potential of foreign lecturers to enhance cooperation with business partners. Finally the universities pointed out, that it would be valuable to create more start-up centres and incubators as strong UBC interfaces.
A major discussion point was the adaptability of the educational systems to the needs of the RIS, especially the needs of the regional labour market.
From the business side it was argued, that HEI graduates lack practical experience and skills, but are more cost-intensive compared to non-academic labour force. Therefore it would be difficult for them to hire graduates. The policy-makers suggested establishing quality diagnostics and analysis tools, to adapt the educational system to fully support the RIS. Concerning the specific academic competences of teachers and researchers, the HEIs suggested to elaborate competence maps of researchers to raise the knowledge about own thematic strengths on different levels of their own organisations.
This would especially be valuable in the interaction with companies, since specific requests for a certain expertise can in many cases not be answered by universities on a suitable short term. Connected to the debate on appropriate regional skills and competences, it was also recommended by the local policy-makers to focus on regional key technologies as stated as an explicit goal of the Slovak Smart Specialisation Strategy European Commission, This should increase the visibility of certain technologies and create an USP for the region.
Examples for key technologies included biomedical industries or senior care industries due to current trends such as the ageing society. For the identified key technologies a regional strategy needs to be established, aligned with national strategies and implemented by all relevant RIS actors. In this context it was also stated, that despite a high dependence of the regional government on the budgetary resources of the national government, the actual political relations between the national and regional level are relatively weak in Slovakia.
Therefore, the local policy-makers recommended to increase the responsibility of the local government in the active management of public resources for economic and social regional development.
There are local bottom-up initiatives needed that should be supported nationally and get linked to the international dimension innovation cities, innovation districts concepts. Finally, it was recommended to find investors for a necessary infrastructure development, such as EIB and other forms of Private-Public-Partnerships.
As desk research and the experiences with the implementation of ICR have shown, a strong motivation for the usage of the discussed IC methodology is given by its specific nature as well-developed and approbated strategic management tool for organisations. The IC models selected both integrate corporate goals and central business processes and the necessary IC drivers and thus generally support our hypothesis — if properly applied — already solely by its specific features.
For HEIs in its current implementation the strategic approach of ICR is predominantly situated in the sphere of a governing institution, utilising the ICR as performance measurement and benchmarking tool of single institutions. The innovation abilities and or capacity of a certain system e. On the one hand, product and process innovations can determine a structural capital driver and be considered as a crucial resource for business success.
In this area was listed as a Unesco-World Heritage Site. In the past the straight automobile sector was an important engine for the support of the structural change, and is highly concerned by these changes: - appearance of a clear trend for the decrease of the manufacturing depth, which requires a new role of the system for the supplier, i. How should be the Open Innovation process managed to benefit successful from innovation in the competitive market? A major challenge is the heterogeneity of the universities; Correct data-clearing is crucial, because the data collecting is done decentralised. In the opto-electronic industry in Berlin and Brandenburg, intensive case studies of cooperations in knowledge-based product innovations are conducted to verify and extend the previously developed model. Each of the capabilities in the model represents a form of innovation, divided into the two drivers.
In this case e. This allows a more detailed analysis of the available resource base for innovation and certain development actions than in the first case. Thus, there is sufficient evidence that a proper IC management — in particular the implementation of an ICR — supports strategic management and innovation skills of organisations.
In the case at hand, suitable IC models and examples for their implementation for private SME and public sector HEI, research organisations organisations could be identified. Specific tailor-made and state-of-the-art training curricula and learning assignments were designed and implemented. Although the general level of interest among the participants was quite high, the amount of competence improvement of single participants is questionable, as feedback and personal observations during the workshops showed.
The points of interest of HEI and company representatives were strongly focussed on their respective sector. It was generally better accomplished by the HEI representatives who are obviously accustomed to handle academic content some of them were even enroled in IC research and the trained trainers, who in many cases were already experienced with policy-making or regional development matters.
Might it be due to the complexity of the whole matter, certain language barriers, some operative barriers different venues for single training modules and therewith coupled fluctuation of participants, the defined learning goals could obviously not been met fully for all participants. Undoubtedly, several participants gained new insights and — following their feedback — inspiring ideas. However, for a future implementation of the elaborated training schemes some improvements should be achieved, e.
Requests for follow-up initiatives, invitations for conferences and discussions prove this valuation. Using innovation key drivers assigned to the IC dimensions as a common base for the RIS analysis and at least some of them for the ICR of the involved organisations was an innovative and helpful approach. It supported the development of a common picture of the actors by linking the efforts for a better corporate performance of the single institutions single ICR and thus competitiveness to a better performance of the whole RIS.
Although several shortcomings of innovation abilities of the RIS actors were well-known before, the IC approach and drivers brought in a well-defined clear structure and methodology for implementation both with a scientifically developed background. The resulting assessment of drivers and discussion formats helped to increase the dynamism of the actors involved and developed comprehensive, cross-sectoral recommendations for further policy measures, especially on a supraordinate level.
Durch einen Abgleich mit Organisationen aus verschiedenen Branchen werden einer wissensintensiven Organisation behandelt, stellt die Einbeziehung In Enabling innovation: Innovative capability- German und international 1 Die hier abgedruckte Version des Beitrags wurde dem Originalbeitrag 58 A. Hansen et al. Cite this publication Organisational innovations at the level of the firm are not a recent GESTION ET ORGANISATION 00 () – souvent primordiale. . of Institutions and Innovation - the German Customized Business Software Industry. Article Wissensintensive unternehmensorientierte Dienstleistungen im.
As shown in the previous chapters, ICR — based on a concise definition and assessment of Human, Structural and Relational Capital drivers — can be a valuable strategic management and steering instrument especially for knowledge-intense organisations. As described in Chapter 2.
UBC and focus on them in course of their single institutional or supraordinate strategies. Being adaptive to diverse systems boundaries and able to link systems elements stakeholders especially via its concept of relational drivers, ICR seems to be the ideal base and tool for a use within the smart regional specialisation strategies. Vogt et al.
Since there is an obvious overall trend for a more performance-based management and competitive orientation on a global scale within the HEI sector worldwide, adequate strategic management concepts and tools are of high importance. The direct comparison of the two selected IC models — the Austrian HEI and German AKWB model — and all affiliated features brought some interesting insights: A distinct difference can be found in the fact, that the Austrian HEI model does overwhelmingly not cover or make explicit the key driving factors which govern the behaviour of the HEI system.
This also implies that a cause-effect analysis and the determination of several system-theoretically based features of the organisations relevance of factors, organisational barriers and points of leverage cannot be accomplished. This makes a proper assessment of measured changes in indicators and correlation with business processes very difficult.
The reason therefore is quite evident and based in the fact, that the original intent at the time of introduction was a visualisation of the IC of HEIs with focus on inter-institutional benchmarking and overall statistics, but only slightly on strategic management and organisational development issues. As shown in the historical introduction the AKWB model is the result of an extensive further development of the basic IC approach, the development of the HEI approach at Austrian Universities took another direction much more focussing on operative issues and data collection than on steering and strategic management issues.
The mere focus on indicators, as used in actual practise in Austrian HEIs, leads to an overwhelming usage of ICR as statistical reporting tool. Its usage as a strategic management instrument for HEIs is neither sufficiently developed, nor implemented in practise, yet. Given the specific and broad stakeholder framework and interests at universities, this seems to be a bigger challenge, but could improve the common insight into and knowledge of strategic planning and resource management.
The results in Chapter 3 show that the governance of ICR at Austrians HEIs is despite its ten years of age still a dynamic process with top-down and bottom-up initiatives working on a further improvement.
HEI and ministerial working groups deal with the amount and definition of indicators, steering and performance relations and strive for an international connectivity of the national ICR scheme. Concluding on these background recommendations for an implementation of an ICR model in the Slovak HEI sector should serve the necessity of a modern performance-oriented management tool on the one hand and a national steering tool with room for benchmarking on the other hand.
The aim of this doctoral dissertation is to examine to what extent path dependencies explain the distribution routines eventually found. In the context of structuration theory, a path model is developed. In the opto-electronic industry in Berlin and Brandenburg, intensive case studies of cooperations in knowledge-based product innovations are conducted to verify and extend the previously developed model.