PN has shown to have efficacy for the treatment of IBD and is compatible with other medicines. However, the effect on the albumin could be less than the observed value in the meta-analysis due to possible publication bias. The BW does not change after intervention.
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COM utilizing PN has been observed, although the proportion is low. Armstrong and Stavros A.
Abstract The motivation to seek and consume water is an essential component of human fluid—electrolyte homeostasis, optimal function, and health. This review describes the evolution of concepts regarding thirst and drinking behavior, made possible by magnetic resonance imaging, animal models, and novel laboratory techniques. The motivation to seek and consume water is an essential component of human fluid—electrolyte homeostasis, optimal function, and health.
The earliest thirst paradigms focused on single factors such as dry mouth and loss of water from tissues. By the end of the 19th century, physiologists proposed a thirst center in the brain that was verified in animals 60 years later. During the early- and mids, the influences of gastric distention, neuroendocrine responses, circulatory properties i. Following a quarter century — of human brain imaging, current research focuses on networks of networks, with thirst and satiety conceived as hemispheric waves of neuronal activations that traverse the brain in milliseconds.
Novel technologies such as chemogenetics, optogenetics, and neuropixel microelectrode arrays reveal the dynamic complexity of human thirst, as well as the roles of motivation and learning in drinking behavior. Solid and dashed arrows represent, respectively, factors that increase and decrease thirst. Three ridges gyri on the cerebral cortex surface are shaded lightly. The dashed region represents the insular cortex IC which lies deep within the lateral surface of the brain. In this idealistic illustration, arrows denote evidence-based neural circuits that integrate intracellular or extracellular signals and modulate thirst, drinking, rapid satiety, overdrinking, and aversive motivational drives.
In this cross-sectional study, a total of T2D patients were enrolled.
Dietary intake was evaluated using [ Dietary intake was evaluated using 3-day food records and appropriate software. Glycemic and blood lipid profiles were measured by standardized methods. Gene-diet interactions regarding anthropometric and metabolic phenotypes were screened by adjusted multiple linear regression analyses. MUFA: Monounsaturated fatty acids. Abstract The human gut is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms composing a dynamic ecosystem implicated in health and disease.
The composition of the gut microbiota is unique to each individual and tends to remain relatively stable throughout life, yet daily transient fluctuations are observed. The human gut is inhabited by trillions of microorganisms composing a dynamic ecosystem implicated in health and disease. Diet is a key modifiable factor influencing the composition of the gut microbiota, indicating the potential for therapeutic dietary strategies to manipulate microbial diversity, composition, and stability.
While diet can induce a shift in the gut microbiota, these changes appear to be temporary. Whether prolonged dietary changes can induce permanent alterations in the gut microbiota is unknown, mainly due to a lack of long-term human dietary interventions, or long-term follow-ups of short-term dietary interventions. It is possible that habitual diets have a greater influence on the gut microbiota than acute dietary strategies.
This review presents the current knowledge around the response of the gut microbiota to short-term and long-term dietary interventions and identifies major factors that contribute to microbiota response to diet. Overall, further research on long-term diets that include health and microbiome measures is required before clinical recommendations can be made for dietary modulation of the gut microbiota for health.
Habitual diet plays a role in shaping the gut microbial environment, and hence, microbial composition. Throughout the year, the human diet tends to display a cyclical seasonal pattern due to seasonal availability and dietary preferences. Currently, diet—microbiome studies fail to consider a number of limitations, including the personalised microbiome, leading to heterogeneous outcomes. In an ideal setting, sample groups would be stratified by enterotype prior to the commencement of an intervention.
Yet, faecal samples can take a lengthy time to process, stymieing study progress. A practical solution could be the use of a classification algorithm to stratify responders and non-responders with the hope of improving study outcomes. Abstract Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide, in particular among older people.
Vitamin D regulates and modulates the physiology and function of multiple human systems, including the skeletal muscle.
The effect of vitamin D on the muscle has been widely investigated, [ Vitamin D deficiency is a common health problem worldwide, in particular among older people. The effect of vitamin D on the muscle has been widely investigated, suggesting that this hormone can stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle fibers, maintaining and improving muscle strength and physical performance. Older persons have a higher prevalence of low Vitamin D levels as a consequence of low dietary intake and reduced ultraviolet irradiation of the skin.
Therefore, older people with vitamin D deficiency might be at risk of sarcopenia, a geriatric syndrome characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength often complicated by adverse events, such as falls, disability hospitalization and death. Several randomized clinical trials have been conducted to investigate the effect of oral vitamin D supplementation in older patients to prevent or treat sarcopenia, but results are still controversial. In this narrative review we summarize the biological, clinical and epidemiological evidence supporting the hypothesis of a causal association between Vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of sarcopenia in older people.
Abstract Little is known about the relationships between weight satisfaction, body image concern, healthy nutrition, health awareness, and physical activity among college students across culturally different countries. We assessed country and sex-specific associations between health status self-rated health, depression, BMI , healthy behavior healthy nutrition, [ Little is known about the relationships between weight satisfaction, body image concern, healthy nutrition, health awareness, and physical activity among college students across culturally different countries.
We assessed country and sex-specific associations between health status self-rated health, depression, BMI , healthy behavior healthy nutrition, physical activity, health awareness , weight satisfaction, and body image concern via a cross-sectional survey undergraduates in Egypt, Palestine, and Finland.
This health and wellbeing survey employed identical self-administered paper questionnaires administered at several Universities in two Eastern Mediterranean countries Egypt, Palestine—Gaza Strip , and an online-survey comprising the same questions in Finland.
Regression analyses were employed. Health status variables exhibited the strongest associations; high BMI and more depressive symptoms were more often among students satisfied with their weight except in Palestine , but they were positively associated with body image concern irrespective of country or gender.
Self-rated health was not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Healthy behaviors were not associated with body image concern or weight satisfaction. Depressive symptoms and BMI were the most prominent predictors for body image concern. There were country-specific consistent results when using the body image concern score. Further research is necessary to compare body image across different cultures and countries. Abstract This study aimed to investigate the association between the frequency of home cooking and obesity among children in Japan.
We used cross-sectional data from the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty study, a population-based sample targeting all fourth-grade students aged 9 to [ This study aimed to investigate the association between the frequency of home cooking and obesity among children in Japan. We used cross-sectional data from the Adachi Child Health Impact of Living Difficulty study, a population-based sample targeting all fourth-grade students aged 9 to 10 in Adachi City, Tokyo, Japan.
School health checkup data on height and weight were used to calculate body mass index z-scores. Overall, 2. After adjusting for confounding factors, children with a low frequency of home cooking were 2. A low frequency of home cooking is associated with obesity among children in Japan, and this link may be explained by unhealthy eating behaviors. Abstract As a result of increased consumer awareness, demand for healthier food products is increasing day by day.
Consumers seek healthier versions of food products which they relate to reduced presence of unhealthy components or increased presence of healthy ones. As a result, the [ As a result of increased consumer awareness, demand for healthier food products is increasing day by day. As a result, the food industry has not only increased the variety of products available but also uses nutritional claims to signal the presence of more substances. As an average consumer at the supermarket devotes just a few seconds to selecting each product, they are only able or willing to process that information that immediately attracts their attention or that is felt to be more important to them.
This paper analyses how consumers rank different nutritional claims for two processed cereal products.
We use a direct ranking preference method with data from a survey conducted with consumers in a Spanish region in Results show that the ranking of claims differs between the two products biscuits and pastries and across consumers. However, consumers prefer those that show reduced presence of unhealthy substances above those that highlight the presence of healthy ones. Therefore, policy to maximize the impact of nutritional labelling should be product-specific.
Abstract Solid food introduction may create anxiety for parents of children with phenylketonuria PKU due to the burden associated with protein substitute PS administration and natural protein restriction. Solid food introduction may create anxiety for parents of children with phenylketonuria PKU due to the burden associated with protein substitute PS administration and natural protein restriction.
Overall, mothers of children with PKU cope well with solid food introduction when applying a low-phenylalanine diet, with comparable low levels of stress and anxiety reported in both PKU and non-PKU groups. Generally, there was a trend that maternal anxiety regarding child rejection of PS increased with time, peaking between 12—24 m. Health professionals should be conscious of this vulnerable period and be prepared to offer more directional support as required.
This study compared the efficacy of two types of dietary advice: 1 brief advice on a commonly recommended diet BRD , and 2 structural individual [ Gastrointestinal symptoms, 7-day food diaries, and post-prandial breath samples were evaluated. Abstract Inflammation of the adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of several chronic diseases associated with obesity. However, their roles in [ Inflammation of the adipose tissue plays an important role in the development of several chronic diseases associated with obesity.
Therefore, these compounds could be novel dietary tools for the prevention of inflammatory diseases associated with obesity. Graphical abstract. Abstract The epidemic of lifestyle-dependent diseases and the failure of previous interventions to combat the main causes demand an alternative approach.
Abdominal obesity is associated with most of these diseases and is a good target for therapeutic and preventive measures. Time-restricted feeding TRF offers [ The epidemic of lifestyle-dependent diseases and the failure of previous interventions to combat the main causes demand an alternative approach. Time-restricted feeding TRF offers a low-threshold, easy-to-implement lifestyle-modification concept with promising results from animal testing. Questionnaires, anthropometrics, and blood samples were used at baseline and at follow-up. After three months of TRF, participants had reached the fasting target, on average, on TRF may be an easily understandable and readily adoptable lifestyle change with the potential to reduce abdominal obesity and lower the risk for cardiometabolic diseases.
Further well-designed studies are necessary to investigate the applicability and usefulness of TRF for public health. More Articles Submit to Nutrients Review for Nutrients Share. Highly Accessed Articles.