Our only hope, then, is in genuine induction. We have no sound notions either in logic or physics; substance, quality, action, passion, and existence are not clear notions; much less weight, levity, density, tenuity, moisture, dryness, generation, corruption, attraction, repulsion, element, matter, form, and the like.
They are all fantastical and ill-defined.
The notions of less abstract natures, as man, dog, dove, and the immediate perceptions of sense, as heat, cold, white, black, do not deceive us materially, yet even these are sometimes confused by the mutability of matter and the intermixture of things. All the rest which men have hitherto employed are errors, and improperly abstracted and deduced from things.
Una 'catastrofe' fisiologica". Il percorso espositivo propone numerosi ritratti e caricature di Marinetti e alcuni capolavori fondamentali presenti nell'originaria collezione dell'artista, o da lui fatti acquisire al Comune di Milano, come le opere di Umberto Boccioni Linea e forza di una bottiglia e Sotto il pergolato a Napoli, e di Giacomo Balla Spazzolridente ed Espansione di primavera , delle Civiche Raccolte d'Arte di Milano. Ma senza dimenticarsi di provenire da Ovest Tutto qui. Che stavolta si tinge di "giallo", proprio come il costume di Rat-Man. Nello stesso anno il tema della nominazione attraversa le cosmicomiche Un segno nello spazio e Tutto in un punto.
There is the same degree of licentiousness and error in forming axioms as in abstracting notions, and that in the first principles, which depend on common induction; still more is this the case in axioms and inferior propositions derived from syllogisms. The present discoveries in science are such as lie immediately beneath the surface of common notions. It is necessary, however, to penetrate the more secret and remote parts of nature, in order to abstract both notions and axioms from things by a more certain and guarded method.
There are and can exist but two ways of investigating and discovering truth. The one hurries on rapidly from the senses and particulars to the most general axioms, and from them, as principles and their supposed indisputable truth, derives and discovers theintermediate axioms. This is the way now in use.
The other constructs its axioms from the senses and particulars, by ascending continually and gradually, till it finally arrives at the most general axioms, which is the true but unattempted way. The understanding when left to itself proceeds by the same way as that which it would have adopted under the guidance of logic, namely, the first; for the mind is fond of starting off to generalities, that it may avoid labor, and after dwelling a little on a subject is fatigued by experiment.
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But those evils are augmented by logic, for the sake of the ostentation of dispute. The understanding, when left to itself in a man of a steady, patient, and reflecting disposition especially when unimpeded by received doctrines , makes some attempt in the right way, but with little effect, since the understanding, undirected and unassisted, is unequal to and unfit for the task of vanquishing the obscurity of things.
Each of these two ways begins from the senses and particulars, and ends in the greatest generalities. But they are immeasurably different; for the one merely touches cursorily the limits of experiment and particulars, while the other runs duly and regularly through them—the one from the very outset lays down some abstract and useless generalities, the other gradually rises to those principles which are really the most common in nature.
There is no small difference between the idols of the human mind and the ideas of the Divine mind—that is to say, between certain idle dogmas and the real stamp and impression of created objects, as they are found in nature. Axioms determined upon in argument can never assist in the discovery of new effects; for the subtilty of nature is vastly superior to that of argument. But axioms properly and regularly abstracted from particulars easily point out and define new particulars, and therefore impart activity to the sciences. The axioms now in use are derived from a scanty handful, as it were, of experience, and a few particulars of frequent occurrence, whence they are of much the same dimensions or extent as their origin.
And if any neglected or unknown instance occurs, the axiom is saved by some frivolous distinction, when it would be more consistent with truth to amend it. We are wont, for the sake of distinction, to call that human reasoning which we apply to nature the anticipation of nature as being rash and premature , and that which is properly deduced from things the interpretation of nature. Anticipations are sufficiently powerful in producing unanimity, for if men were all to become even uniformly mad, they might agree tolerably well with each other.
Anticipations again, will be assented to much more readily than interpretations, because being deduced from a few instances, and these principally of familiar occurrence, they immediately hit the understanding and satisfy the imagination; while, on the contrary, interpretations, being deduced from various subjects, and these widely dispersed, cannot suddenly strike the understanding, so that in common estimation they must appear difficult and discordant, and almost like the mysteries of faith.
In sciences founded on opinions and dogmas, it is right to make use of anticipations and logic if you wish to force assent rather than things. If all the capacities of all ages should unite and combine and transmit their labors, no great progress will be made in learning by anticipations, because the radical errors, and those which occur in the first process of the mind, are not cured by the excellence of subsequent means and remedies. It is in vain to expect any great progress in the sciences by the superinducing or ingrafting new matters upon old.
An instauration must be made from the very foundations, if we do not wish to revolve forever in a circle, making only some slight and contemptible progress. The ancient authors and all others are left in undisputed possession of their honors; for we enter into no comparison of capacity or talent, but of method, and assume the part of a guide rather than of a critic. To speak plainly, no correct judgment can be formed either of our method or its discoveries by those anticipations which are now in common use; for it is not to be required of us to submit ourselves to the judgment of the very method we ourselves arraign.
Nor is it an easy matter to deliver and explain our sentiments; for those things which are in themselves new can yet be only understood from some analogy to what is old. Alexander Borgia said of the expedition of the French into Italy that they came with chalk in their hands to mark up their lodgings, and not with weapons to force their passage.
Even so do we wish our philosophy to make its way quietly into those minds that are fit for it, and of good capacity; for we have no need of contention where we differ in first principles, and in our very notions, and even in our forms of demonstration. We have but one simple method of delivering our sentiments, namely, we must bring men to particulars and their regular series and order, and they must for a while renounce their notions, and begin to form an acquaintance with things.
Our method and that of the sceptics agree in some respects at first setting out, but differ most widely, and are completely opposed to each other in their conclusion; for they roundly assert that nothing can be known; we, that but a small part of nature can beknown, by the present method; their next step, however, is to destroy the authority of the senses and understanding, while we invent and supply them with assistance.
The formation of notions and axioms on the foundation of true induction is the only fitting remedy by which we can ward off and expel these idols. It is, however, of great service to point them out; for the doctrine of idols bears the same relation to the interpretation of nature as that of the confutation of sophisms does to common logic. The idols of the den are those of each individual; for everybody in addition to the errors common to the race of man has his own individual den or cavern, which intercepts and corrupts the light of nature, either from his own peculiar and singular disposition, or from his education and intercourse with others, or from his reading, and the authority acquired by those whom he reverences and admires, or from the different impressions produced on the mind, as it happens to be preoccupied and predisposed, or equable and tranquil, and the like; so that the spirit of man according to its several dispositions , is variable, confused, and as it were actuated by chance; and Heraclitus said well that men search for knowledge in lesser worlds, and not in the greater or common world.
There are also idols formed by the reciprocal intercourse and society of man with man, which we call idols of the market, from the commerce and association of men with each other; for men converse by means of language, but words are formed at the will of the generality, and there arises from a bad and unapt formation of words a wonderful obstruction to the mind.
Nor can the definitions and explanations with which learned men are wont to guard and protect themselves in some instances afford a complete remedy—words still manifestly force the understanding, throw everything into confusion, and lead mankind into vain and innumerable controversies and fallacies. Nor do we speak only of the present systems, or of the philosophy and sects of the ancients, since numerous other plays of a similar nature can be still composed and made to agree with each other, the causes of the most opposite errors being generally the same.
Hamm: Le salud! SN, Nessuna traccia di numinoso, nemmeno puramente residuale: 16 mistificante.
Sul senso del male in Beckett, vedi ancora Cascetta , p. D: Mi succede che salgo su — no?
Ci provo. U: Sei matta? VU: — Sognavo che dormivo, pensa.
Saggio su Luca Ronconi, Einaudi, Torino. Impulsi politici si sommano a drammi esistenziali. La famiglia entra in crisi ma, come spesso avviene, i legami meno scontati la tengono unita. Giuliani , p. Joyce  e Proust . Vassalli , pp. Vassalli , p. La disfatta della parola pesa troppo per le spalle di un giovane scrittore. Si allestisce la ritirata. Fare poesia con le immagini, che tautologia inutile. Bianchi G. Sugar, Milano, Senza e Lo spopolatore, Einaudi, Torino, JUNG C. Tipi psicologici, Newton Compton, Roma, La pulizia a fondo era in pieno esercizio.
Tra qualche ora si sarebbe chiusa la finestra, si sarebbero tirate le tende e si sarebbe proceduto alla disinfestazione. Li conoscevo. O meglio quelle narrazioni che lo scrittore italiano ha individuato nella complessiva opera di Samuel Beckett per articolare il suo ragionamento e che provengono, tutte, dalla sezione che Fletcher ha sussunto nel termine outcast.
Narrazioni del personaggio reietto ed esiliato, del personaggio espulso dal mondo.
Belpoliti , specialmente pp. E: — schioppatelo Otero Otero Aloysio Aloysio. Celati , p. E lei naturalmente essendo insegnante di lingue estere non mi voleva smentire di questo fatto. Io non sapevo neanche di cosa parlasse, ma per calmarlo facevo quella funzione di ascoltare i suoi discorsi e applaudirlo, in quanto ero il fratello minore. Non si tratta certo di quattro brani stilisticamente identici, eppure sono tutti contrassegnati, con la probabile eccezione del primo, da un medesimo ritmo. Sono a Bologna, piazza Pace 8, casa dei miei genitori morti da un pezzo.
Celati , pp. Attraverso la porta sento una vocina che vorrebbe fare il vaglio critico delle mie avventure, spiegare le trame, tutti i miei errori; dice che non ho mai preso coscienza, che ho passato la vita a raccontare sbafornie.